Tuesday, August 22, 2017

The Critical factor of team morale in scrum teams | Supreme Agile

תוצאת תמונה עבור ‪morale booster quotes‬‏
One of the main factors of success for any team is to keep a high team morale, the team morale has a direct effect on the team performance and productivity, In Scrum team, this factor becomes even more important due to the nature of the "Self-Organized" team that is based on five main factors:
  1. Respect among the team members.
  2. Commitment to shared goals.
  3. Collaboration that increase synchronization.
  4. Increased communication.
  5. Trust.
The level of morale of the team has a direct impact on all major factors that are used to determine the level of success of the team:
  • Improved productivity.
  • The confidence of the team regarding the process.
  • The efficiency of the work based on team capacity.
  • Attention to details and increased quality of work.
  • Communication, collaboration and team commitment.
The morale of the team is crucial for both experienced and novice teams, in most cases and based on my experience, the main cause of 90% of team failures are relevant to the morale factor, a team with low morale will have more chances to fail (Especially new teams that just started to use this methodology) than teams with higher moral that are dedicated and committed to success.

How Scrum as a framework can contribute to team morale?

Based on the Agile manifesto, we can say that one of the main concepts of Agile is to provide value to the client, but in addition, it also describes the three C's (Communication, Collaboration and Commitment) that make agile such a great process for teams, these three C's can have a major effect on the team morale: 


  • In scrum, the team is "Self-Organized"! Has a result the team morale should be higher due to the importance of each team member that has an equal chance to affect the team progress.
  • Due to the nature of scrum, the team members can see quick results every two weeks, so a good collaboration will help the team members to gain more confidence in the quality of their work.
  • Collaboration with the customer will help the team to gain a quick feedback that will help the team to gain a deeper understanding about what is expected from them.
  • All team resources are working together for the same commitments, there is no difference between testers and developers that now can collaborate in efficient way that will allow them to increase the quality factors.
  • There are a few scrum levels that we can use to determine the maturity of the team, as higher the maturity the higher the collaboration which will reduce the need of performing long and unproductive meetings (Planning, Retrospectives Etc.).


  • Increased communication with the customer that will help the team deliver value without failing on small communication issues that can affect the morale of the team.
  • Increased communication among the team members using specific meetings (planning, Daily's, Refactoring Etc.) that help the team members to increase the information exchange and narrow the chances for failures that arrived from synchronization issues.
  • Increased collaboration with the product owner that will increase the team productivity.


In agile, the commitment is based on the entire team members that should work together to decide the amount of work that they can deliver at the end of each iteration, this type of commitment that bases on the opinion of the entire team members will help to increase the morale of each team member.

How the product owner and the scrum master can contribute to team morale?

  • Let the team members to share their thoughts and provide the space for them to express their opinion. 
  • Show your trust, confidence and faith in the team work.
  • Celebrate success and show appreciation to their work.
  • Be patience and understanding about their failures.
  • Provide visibility for the team members about changes that may affect their work.
  • Let the team to participate in major project decisions.
  • Support the team once, they will need it.
  • Make sure you provide a solid ground to the team members for self-improvement.
  • Make sure that the team members will have the chances to learn new things.
  • Provide the team the things that they need in order to succeed.
  • Provide challenges and narrow the routine work. 

Saturday, August 19, 2017

Risk Based Testing (RBT) | David Tzemach

תמונה קשורה

To make it simple, we can define RBT as an approach were the testing on a project is done based on risk calculation. RBT is used to priorities the tests needed to be done based on the risk of failures, the importance of the area/function and likelihood or impact of the failure on the system.

By using Risk-Based testing we will design the projects tests after a deep analyzing of the risks related to the application under test. This approach will help us to prioritized our tests and focus the testing effort on the most important areas of the application which will allow us to reduce the major risks first. 

When to implement Risk-Based Testing

Risk-Based Testing is a great testing methodology, but when organizations should use it?
  1. Agile projects that uses incremental releases and short iterations.
  2. Projects with high risk factors (Low domain knowledge, lack of experience Etc.).
  3. Any projects with low testing timeframe and resources.  

Types of software risks

Risk Type
Project Risk
Market, legal, Resources, Timelines, Project scope, Costs Etc.
Process Risk
Engineering (Planning and Development process)
Planning, Strategy, time estimations, Quality and Development Strategies Etc.
Product Risk
Engineering from a quality perspective
Low domain knowledge, low quality requirements, complexity, coding quality Etc.

Risk Management as the bassline for Risk-Based Testing

Risk-Based Testing is based on a list of risks, but what is the process that software teams are using to identify them? Well to answer that question we should follow the three high level phases performed during Risk-Based Testing:

Phase 1 - Risk identification

This is the first and probably the most crucial phase of the entire process, during the Risk identification process, we will define a list of Risk that may occur in case that a specific component/Function hadn’t been tested as it should be during the testing process.

To be able to uncover the major risks, the tester must have knowledge in all requirements of the project, Process and the software that under test. In addition, the Risk identification process will be more effective once the tester has the knowledge and expertise in the technology and the environmental elements that may affect the software once it’s deployed.

Phase 2 - Risk Analysis

In this stage we need to determine the level of risk for each item in the list we prepared on stage one, the level of risk is determined by the likelihood of the risk to occur and on the impact that he has on the project.

RISK = Damage * Probability  

Damage – What is the amount of damage that this risk can do to the system, Example:

The Risk will lead to a business objective that cannot be accomplished
The Risk will affect a business objective
The Risk will have a minor effect on a business objective

Probability – What is the probability that this risk will actually occur once the system is used by a customer, Example:

There is almost certain chance that the error will occur
There is a 50/50% that the risk will occur
There is a low chance to the Risk to happened
There is a slight/minor chance to the Risk to happened

Phase 3 -Mitigation Plan

Based on the analyzed information and the Numeric values that used in the formula, a test design can now be made to remove the identified risks based on their Risk factor that was determined in the Analysis phase.  

When do we start Risk-Based Testing?

Similar to any testing technique, Risk-Based testing must be started early in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), the key to success in RBT, is to succeed identifying the risks early as possible to prepare an appropriate mitigation plan.

The Goals of Risk-Based Testing

The main and most important goal in Risk-Based Testing is to design and execute the testing effort with similar guidelines and Best practices used during risk management process, if we succeed to forecast the main risks of the project, we will be able to increase the pretenses of delivering a goof quality product.

The Advantages and Benefits of Risk-Based Testing
Once an organization decided to use Risk-Based Testing as the preferred testing technique for a project, he can enjoy some major the following benefits, such as:

  1. Risk-Based Testing provides a proven technique to make an efficient testing process because it allowing the test team to prioritize the testing effort against deadlines.
  2. Risk-Based Testing will allow the test teams to understand when they can stop their tests (the tests are stopped once all Risks are removed based on the preliminary analysis).
  3. Using Risk-Based Testing, the organization can make a better utilization of the testing resources invested in the testing process, which will lead to shorter release cycles, less testing resources and a major reduce in long regression cycles.
  4. Once the organization is using agile methodologies that reduce the release cycles (Two-Four weeks) and as a result the long traditional regression tests are becoming not relevant, to handle this gap we will use Risk-Based Testing as the new testing approach.
  5. Risk-Based Testing will allow the organization to achieve a better-quality due to the fact that testing is done based on Risks and not per specific functionality.
  6. Risk-Based Testing will reduce the need to run an endless test cases as testing team using during regression cycles and focus on the things that really matters.
  7. Risk-Based Testing will allow the testing team to achieve a better and smarter test coverage that is determined based on real analysis of the risks
  8. Risk-Based Testing, will allow the test teams to monitor and understand the status of each identified risks.

Disadvantages of Risk-Based Testing
Although Risk-Based Testing is a great method for project testing, it’s still have some disadvantages that we must recognize once we decide to use it:
  1. Risk-Based Testing should be made by experienced testers that understands the application and the environmental variables that can affect the software.
  2. The starting point of Risk-Based Testing is to understand and uncover the risks, which is always difficult to understand them at the beginning of the project. 

Sunday, August 6, 2017

Complete Web Application Usability Testing Checklist | David Tzemach - Approved


The main target of usability testing, is to validate that the customer will have the best user experience while working with the application. During the usability testing process, we will design and execute the tests from the user point of view and based of a few main factors that can affect the user experience.
תוצאת תמונה עבור ‪software usability quotes‬‏

There are three major factors that we need to validate during the “Usability” testing process:

The site efficiency - Just remember that users want to accomplish their goals without executing numerous complex steps, therefore the application should allow those users to perform any complex task in a few basic and simplified steps. 

The site effectiveness– To determine the effectiveness of the site, we just need to ask the simple but crucial question of "Is the site meets the user expectations?"

The user experience – what will be the user experience when using the site? A good experience and the user will return to use the site, otherwise, he will most likely refuse to use it again.


Site Design

  • Validate that when the user closes a child window, he returns to the parent window.
  • Validate that the site content does not contain grammatical or spelling errors?
  • Make sure that the site "Homepage" will create a positive First impression.
  • Validate that the site contains the company logo and contact information.
  • All buttons should be at the same standard (Size, shape, format, etc.).
  • Validate that there is a predefined selection of a radio button object.
  • Do the web pages on the site have the correct “Look and Feel”?
  • Is all field syntax (headers, Information, etc.) spelled correctly?
  • Validate that there is enough space among the site objects.
  • Validate that each web page on the site has a valid title.
  • Validate that the site text/fields are properly aligned.
  • When clicking a “Text” field, the mouse arrow should be changed to a cursor that appears in the text field.
  • Are all the site objects (Buttons, text boxes, command buttons) grouped together in a clear and logical way?
  • Validate that the user cannot edit the parent window if there is a child window opened.
  • Validate that “Disabled” fields are grayed out when needed so the user cannot use/add focus on them.
  • Are all fonts in the correct size (not too small/large) as described in the requirements docs?

SMTP Tests

  • Validate that the application supports the main E-mail clients (Gmail, Outlook, etc.).
  • Validate that your mail template is corresponding with the basic CSS standards.
  • Validate that you have a specific template for each mail that is sent.
  • Validate that the mail is sent from the correct SMTP server.
  • Validate that you have can see the user default signature.
  • Validate that E-mail contains the company Privacy policy.
  • Validate that E-mail contains the company Logo.
  • Validate that you support “Plain text” e-mails.
  • Validate the support in E-mail attachments.
  • Validate that you support “HTML” e-mails.
  • Try to send the E-mail to multiple users.
  • Validate that you record the emails that are sent from the application (Security and confidentiality reasons).
  • Validate that the user cannot send the email before validating the recipient E-mail address.
  • Validate that the Email “subject” field contains the relevant syntax (cannot remain empty!).
  • Validate that the Email “Sender” field contains the relevant syntax (cannot remain empty!).


  • Validate that amount values are displayed with the relevant currency symbols.
  • Numeric values should be aligned (Usually to the right), page text to the left (depends on the localization environment).
  • Validate that the user has the option to change the site language to support his localization attributes.

File mechanism (import/Export)

Import Files

  • Validate the upload of large files (Time to upload, how it transferred to the server, etc.).
  • Validate that the user specifies a name before starting the uploading process.
  • Validate that the file size is displayed with the original file dimensions.
  • Validate that you cannot import files without extensions.
  • Validate that the user can “Cancel” the upload process.
  • Try to use file names that contain special characters.
  • Validate that the user cannot upload files that he changed the File extension (Example: text File that was changed manually to “JPEG”).
  • Try to upload multiple files.
  • In any case of error, validate that the user received a notification that explains the cause of the failure.
  • Validate that the user can upload only the file extensions that are supported by the server.
  • Validate that the image quality that displayed after the upload is matched to the original file.

Export Files

  • Validate that the exported data are the same as defined in the application.
  • The file should be exported with the relevant extension.
  • The file should be exported with the relevant name.
  • In case that the file is exported to Excel file, validate that the appropriate values (Column names, Timestamp, Currency values etc.).
  • Export files with massive content (MAX File size).
  • In case that the file name already exists in the system, the user should get a notification that confirms the export process.
  • If supported, validate that the user can export the file to multiple extensions (PDF, CSV, Excel, etc.).

Site Multimedia/Graphics

  • Do not add any unnecessary multimedia to the site that will affect the user experience.
  • Validate that the site multimedia will not affect the page loading time.
  • Validate that the site multimedia will not reduce the download time.
  • Validate that each graphical object has meaningful to the user.
  • Validate that you use only the relevant media objects.
  • Introduce the site animation to the user.


  • Display a search results notification in any case that the search query returns ‘0’ hits.
  • Validate that the user receives the most relevant results in the top search results.
  • Provide a search advice in any case that the search query returns ‘0’ hits.
  • Provide the ability to search on a single page or on the entire site.
  • Allow the user to search based on “Case Sensitive” terms.
  • The results count should be available in the results grid.
  • Validate that the site contains a search option per page.
  • Validate the Navigation between the results page.
  • Provide the option to sort the search results.
  • Provide predefined search queries.
  • Allow search filters.

User Experience

  • Do not ask the user to perform a complex operation to use a simple functionality.
  • Can the simple user can use the system without older experience?
  • Allow users to use profiles that will help them keep their work.
  • Validate the keyboard shortcuts are working on the site.
  • Validate that the site content is organized clearly.
  • Validate that the site content is up to date.
  • Avoid opening any unnecessary windows.
  • The user should identify the site Mandatory fields, make sure that they marked by an asterisk symbol (*).

Site Performance (UE aspects)

  • Identify the site configuration that provides the best performance.
  • Identify the site recovery mechanism in any case of system failure.
  • Inform users when the requested operations will take a long time.
  • The site loading time should be reasonable to the user requests.
  • Identify the application behavior after a long period of time.
  • Warn the user when the site has any “Timeouts” states.
  • Test the site functionality with high load.
  • When the application is entered into processing/Busy mode, validate that here is a corresponding progress bar/Hourglass.
  • Reduce the download times.
  • Identify the site bottlenecks.

Site Functionality

  • The User should have the option to select only a single value in a “Drop-Down” object.
  • Validate that the user has the option to ‘Cancel’ operation prior to the update process.
  • Validate that user receives a ‘confirmation’ notification after each functional operation.
  • Make sure that the user will have the option to ‘Reset’ the changes he made.
  • Validate that each delete operation will raise a confirmation notification.
  • Validate that the site “Minimize” and “Maximize” time has no delay.
  • Validate that “drop down” values are defined in a valid sort order.
  • Validate that all input fields are tested with the boundary values.
  • Validate that you have a “Tooltip” for every field that needs it.
  • Validate numeric input fields with negative inputs.
  • Validate input fields with special characters.
  • Validate input fields with spaces.
  • Allow the user to use the Select/Deselect in a case of multiple selectable object values.


  • Does the system provides a clear and informative “Help” menus?
  • Validate that the “Help” menu is opened when user press ‘F1’.


  • Validate that the site text/fields are properly aligned to be printed properly.
  • Provide the option to print in different formats.
  • Do pages are printed without cutting the text?
  • Provide a printing option.


  • The user should have the option to return to the “Home” page from every page.
  • The user should have the option to navigate between the site levels.
  • Validate that the “Tab” / “Shift + Tab” sequence is working correctly.
  • Validate that the user receives a “Scrollbar” when the text is not fitting into the text field, or when there are too many options in a “Drop-Down” object.
  • The user should get an indicator regarding his current location.
  • Validate that the user can navigate the site with Keyboard.
  • Is the site terminology understandable for the site users?
  • Major functionalities should be available on the homage.
  • Make sure that you supply a navigation option per page.
  • Validate that you use the relevant menu types.

Compatibility Test Scenarios

Compatibility testing is used to validate how well your site is compatible with other systems which it should operate (Hardware/Software). In a web testing process, we need to validate that the site functions, Display, and behavior are kept no matter the environment that hosts it.
  • Validate the site with different network environments and architectures.
  • Validate that your site can work with different browser security profiles.
  • Validate the site against different versions of the same browser.
  • Validate the site behavior won different screen resolutions.
  • Design your site to be compatible with common browsers (Internet Explorer, Edge, Google Chrome, safari Firefox).
  • Validate that all site images, JavaScript code fonts, and strings are displayed correctly in different environments.
  • Validate the application compatibility with different hardware devices (Mac, Phones, and Tablets etc.).
  • Design your site to be compatible with common operating systems (Windows, Android, UNIX etc.).

Links/URL test scenarios

Email links - A link that is used to open a default email application (Client Side) should be open with the relevant sending address (TO Site Address).

An Internal Links - link that is used to point to an internal site pages/forms (Help, Navigation Links, Home Page, Legend, About, Contact, etc.).

Broken Links – Links are not linked to any page (Internal/External), usually caused by a spellcheck issues or a referenced location that is no longer available.

External links – Links which are pointing to external websites that are not related to the site under test.
  • Validate that the baseline site is available after the user use a hyperlink.
  • Make sure that you validate both the “Internal” and “External” links.
  • Validate that every hyperlink is marked so the user can find it (Links should be differentiated from a regular text on the same form).
  • Validate that you can open the link in a new tab/New window.
  • Validate that the site is configured with appropriate links.
  • Validate that a hyperlink to an “E-mail” address will open a corresponding e-mail application (When supported).
  • Check rather you have broken links.
  • Validate that when a user uses a hyperlink, the referenced location is open under reasonable timeframe.
  • Validate that every part of the site that is “referenced” based, as a corresponding hyperlink.
  • Validate that the site links are highlighted when a user is placing the mouse pointer on it.
  • Validate that your tests cover the “navigation” links between the website different pages.
  • Validate that a site link takes you to the specified location that describes in the link name.
  • Validate that all the site download links point the user to the correct host location.
  • Validate that the user receives a valid notification when the link is broken.

Error handling 

  • Validate that the error notification is displayed at the correct position.
  • In a case of an error, validate that the relevant fields are highlighted.
  • Validate that all error messages are correct and informative.

Sunday, July 30, 2017

Selenium WebDriver - How to Identify Web Elements Using Selenium XPath Axes

XPath Axes

XPath Axes allowing us to develop a more reboots strategies to locate elements based on nodes relationships, the following table contains the basic Axes that we can use to implement this strategy.
תמונה קשורה

XPath Axes
Selects all attributes for a specified node
Selects all children for a specified node
Selects all descendants children for a specified node
Selects all descendants children for a specified node including the node itself
Selects all siblings located after the closing tag of the current node
Selects all siblings that available after the current node
Selects the parent of the current node
Select all nodes prior to the current node (Filtered: attribute nodes, namespace nodes and ancestors)
preceding -sibling
Selects all siblings located prior to the current node


In DOM (Document Object Model) we can say that everything that existing in the doc can be considered as a node:
  • HTML tags are element nodes that you can locate in the DOM tree.
  • HTML comments are considered as comment nodes
  • HTML attributes are considered as attribute nodes.
  • HTML elements are considered as element nodes.
  • The document itself can be considered as a node.
  • Doctype is a DOM node.
  • HTML whitespace nodes (Whitespace symbols in the HTML code (the spaces between the nodes)).

HTML code

<li>="Node 1">First node in list</li>
<li>="Node 2">Second node in list</li>
<li>="Node 3">Third node in list</li>
<li>="Node 4">Fourth node in list</li>
<li>="Node 5">Fifth node in list</li>
<li>="Node 6">Sixth node in list</li>

Code Examples
How to get the preceding values of an element


"Node 1">First node in list
"Node 2">Second node in list
"Node 3">Third node in list

How to get the following values of an element

"Node 5">Fifth node in list
"Node 6">Sixth node in list

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Top 10 Benefits of automated testing | David Tzemach

תוצאת תמונה עבור ‪best quotes about software testing‬‏


Execution Time

The creation of the test scripts may take some time, but once done, we can execute them faster than any human being that will try to execute them manually.

In addition, the tests can run at night and 24/7 via schedule, this is a Hugh advantage because it does not consume the daily work hours of the resources. 

Quick and detailed feedback

One biggest advantage of carrying out automated testing is the ability to get a quick and detailed feedback on the status of the application at any given time.

This capability is crucial to any development methodology but especially on Agile teams where the code is modified numerous times a day and can be validated with a simple test run.

No more Regression tests

let’s think about a testing process that does not include any automated tests, where testers perform the same regression tests on any testing cycle and version. What is the benefit? None, Testers become frustrated, the testing time is consumed and there is no thinking about advanced and complex test scenarios.

Now, let’s think about a testing process that includes automated tests, What the benefit? Testers will no longer execute regression tests, they will gain more time to improve the test design and focus on exploratory testing.


Automation on all levels of the application development

There are few mandatory phases involved in any process of application development, using automation frameworks, we can automate each phase, which will help us to find defects sooner (Both Functional and Logical).

To demonstrate this point, I created this table that demonstrates how automated tests can affect the quality per development level.

Development & Testing levels
We will test each function with unit tests
Automated tests
Tests are done when the component is tested as “Black-Box” with preliminary inputs and expected results.
Automated tests
Integration and Interface
We will test the integration and interfaces among two or more components, this is can be done using Stubs and Drivers.
Automated tests
The entire system is tested on isolated environment when all components are integrated together
Automated tests
End To End
The application is tested with external artifacts (File Servers, Networks, Etc.)
Automated tests
The human tester will run any tests that are not automated on the previous levels
Manual execution by testers

Continuous integration(CI)

Using automated tools we can implement a process of “Continuous integration” where each code modification is tested (Automatically J) before any check-in to the main branch. Implementing such process will increase the effectiveness of engineering in the following ways:
  • CI detects problems early, therefore any defects will have a smaller impact.
  • Developers receive a fast feedback about the status of the application.
  • Developers can submit their code multiple times a day.
  • The code is tested before conducting a new build.

Reduce the testing Costs

Yes, carrying out an automation process is expensive, but if you think about the full picture, the overall advantages will reduce the overall costs compared to the same process that conducts manually.

  • The testing Resources can be reduced after the initial implementation.
  • The entire development process becomes more efficient.
  • The manual testing effort is reduced
  • Regression effort is narrowed. 


Shared Responsibility

Automated tests are can be written by both developers and QA engineers, therefore, we can split the responsibility between the two sides that will increase the responsibility and contribution of the development team.


Test Coverage

Once built, the testing coverage is increased dramatically, Just think about each test case that you automated, you can run the same test(Simultaneity) on many supported environments, Browsers, and hardware that you just cannot run manually due to narrow timelines.


Reduce the Human resources

After the first implementation, you will no longer need the large number of manual testers that will run the same tests over and over again.



Automated tests are created from a test scripts that will follow the same steps over and over again, this is far more reliable than a human tester that can skip or ignore one step which will lead to a different result. 

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